Expression systems

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Mainstream systems

Escherichia coli

Rosetta cells

If you are trying to express non-bacterial protein, it is quite likely that your gene of interest contains rare codons and thus E.Coli can't express it well. Rosetta and Rosetta 2 cells (available from Novagen) are designed to overcome this problem. For human proteins, expression levels may sometimes change from "I need to enrich the protein batch on affinity column before I can see protein on the gel" to "80% of the protein in the lysed cells is my protein of interest".


Pichia pastoris

Insect cells

Baculovirus-mediated expression in Spodoptera frugiperd and Trichoplusia ni cells

Mammalian cells

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cultured cells

Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) 293 cultured cells

Other systems


Bacillus subtilis

Bacillus megaterium

Pseudomonas fluorescens


Leishmania tarentolae


Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Schizosaccharomyces pombe

Hansenula polymorpha

Filamentous fungi

Plant cells



Nicotiana tabacum